Alaska Earthquakes

The 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake occurred on Good Friday, March 27th. It and rocked the state with strong ground shaking for 4.5 minutes. At magnitude 9.2, it was the second largest quake ever recorded by seismometers.

This animation shows the underlying causes of that earthquake, and tells how research done on the ground deformation contributed to confirmation of early theories of plate tectonics.

Animation & graphics by Jenda Johnson, geologist
Directed by Robert F. Butler, University of Portland
U.S. Geological Survey consultants: Robert C. Witter, Alaska Science Center Peter J. Haeussler, Alaska Science Center
Narrated by Roger Groom, Mount Tabor Middle School

Maps from Google Earth. Video from US Army Corps of Engineers. Tsunami animation from National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Photographs from US Geological Survey.

Errata: 1) Fourth Ave., not Fourth St. 2) After 2min48sec the epicenter was shifted N. Should be ESE of that, closer to Prince William Sound. Apologies from animator.

Youtube Source IRIS

WMV file for downloading.

EQ title page

M 7.1 Phillipines 2013.10.15

Fairly big earthquake. Sounds like it has caused some damage. Looks like a thrust or reverse earthquake, USGS poses the fault is in the Sunda crust. Fairly deep earthquake, but this is continental crust i believe, so might not be too deep after all.

Here is the USGS moment tensor page
Mw = 7.2 Philippines

Here is a map that shows the epicenter as it relates to the general plate tectonics of the region. the Philippine plate is subducting westward beneath the Sunda plate, part of the Eurasia plate. The island of Sumatra is on the western side of this plate, where the India-Australia plate subducts northeasterly to form the Java, Sumatra, and Andaman subduction zones.

Mw = 7.2 Philippines

Here is the same map with historic earthquakes plotted. Note how they outline the plate boundaries.

Mw = 7.2 Philippines

Here is a map zoomed into the region.

Mw = 7.2 Philippines

Here is the same map with shaking intensity plotted.

Mw = 7.2 Philippines

Here are the PAGER data (estimates for the amount of people or fiscal damage).

Mw = 7.2 Philippines

Here is the PAGER map (estimates for the amount of people or fiscal damage).

Mw = 7.2 Philippines

Mw 5.0 Trinidad 2013.10.11

All right! That was exciting and a little bit scary. Most all earthquakes scare me because I recognize they might get bigger or trigger a bigger one.

This earthquake is most likely on a northeast striking strike-slip fault in the downgoing Gorda plate. The GP is caught in a vice between the older and stronger North America and Pacific plates.

Here is the USGS page: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nc72086051#summary

Here is the moment tensor
Mw = 5 Trinidad Moment Tensor

Here is the seismogrpaph at HSU (photo credit Lori Dengler)
Mw = 5 Trinidad Moment Tensor

Mw = 5 Trinidad Map

Here is a map I made in google earth showing historic earthquakes. Note the larger gray circle to the northeast of today’s earthquake. That is the 1980 Mw = 7.2 earthquake that caused extensive damage in Humboldt County (knocking the bridge partly down on hwy 101 near CR). Today’s earthquake appears to be along the same fault system that ruptured in 1980:

Mw = 5 Trinidad Map

Here is the seismogrpaph at Jacoby Creek (data credit Lori Dengler). The vertical lines are six seconds apart.
Mw = 5 Trinidad Moment Tensor

Here is a map that Chris Rollins used in his 2010 paper. It shows historic seismicity in this region, including the 1980 swarm.
Mw = 5 Trinidad Rollins

Here is a map that I made in google earth that shows the shaking intensity (Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale).
Mw = 5 Trinidad Rollins

Here is a map that I made in google earth that shows the % Peak Ground Acceleration (% of g, where g is defined as 9.8 m/s^2).
Mw = 5 Trinidad Rollins

These are the models for tectonic deformation within the Gorda plate as presented by Jason Chaytor in 2004.
Mw = 5 Trinidad Chaytor

Here is the SCEC page: http://www.data.scec.org/recenteqs/Quakes/nc72086051.html

Here are the seismologic information:
Mw = 5 Trinidad NCSS Seismo

Here is the SCEC map I went to before it showed up on the USGS page. Note that no magnitude had been assigned yet:
Mw = 5 Trinidad Moment Tensor

M7.7 Earthquake in Pakistan

A very large earthquake in Pakistan today!

As a result of collision of the Arabia plate into the Eurasia plate, thrust faults formed in Pakistan. This collision zone is the same basic convergence region that extends from Java/Sumatra, up through Burma, across India (creating the Himalaya), through the middle east, into the Mediterranean creating the Alps.
Here is the moment tensor for this earthquake, showing the oblique mechanism.
M=7.7 Pakistan Moment Tensor

Here is a map with the epicenter plotted in google earth.
M=7.7 Pakistan

Here is a map with the Modified Mercalli Intensity Contours plotted in google earth.
M=7.7 Pakistan

Here is a map with the MMI intensity (USGS shakemap color overlay) and Peak Ground Acceleration Contours plotted in google earth.
M=7.7 Pakistan

Here is the USGS page: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usb000jyiv#summary

Here is the USGS map for the region:
http://earthjay.com/earthquakes/20130924_pakistan/middleeast_tsum.jpg

Here is the USGS page for the loss estimates below: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/usb000jyiv#pager

Here is the estimate of fatalities for this earthquake:
http://earthjay.com/earthquakes/20130924_pakistan/alertfatal.jpg

Here is the estimate of economic loss for this earthquake:
http://earthjay.com/earthquakes/20130924_pakistan/alertecon.jpg

Here is the estimate of “exposure” for this earthquake:
http://earthjay.com/earthquakes/20130924_pakistan/pakistan_78_table_population_exposure_20130924_0850.PNG

IPCC 5th Assessment Report Forthcoming

Coming out later this month here http://www.climatechange2013.org/report/

i pasted some text from the group I fact sheet that demonstrates why the IPCC assessment reports are the most comprehensive and peer reviewed science ever. 9,200 references! ~55,000 comments! no single paper published anywhere at any time has been so comprehensive. single papers, which may disagree with minor aspects of the ARs, pale in comparison (but continue to be used by blog writers to attempt to discredit the AR). single authors also attempt to raise questions, but frequently they are only experts in a minor or related field (eg Don Easterbrook, world class glaciologist, but not a climatologist).

you have questions? WG1AR5_Questions.pdf

you want to read the fact sheet? WG1AR5_Questions.pdf

The Report
1 Scoping Meeting to outline 14 Chapters Over 1000 nominations from 63 countries
209 Lead Authors and 50 Review Editors from 39 countries Over 600 Contributing Authors from 32 countries Over 2 million gigabytes of numerical data from climate model simulations Over 9200 scientific publications cited

The First Order Draft Expert Review
Nearly 1500 individuals registered 21,400 comments from 659 Expert Reviewers from
47 countries

The Second Order Draft Expert and Government Review
Over 1500 individuals registered 31,422 comments from 800 Expert Reviewers from
46 countries and 26 Governments

The Final Government Distribution
1855 comments from 32 Governments on the Final Draft Summary for Policymakers

Total Reviews
54,677 comments 1089 Expert Reviewers from 55 countries 38 Governments

Fall 2013 Geosciences Courses – College of the Redwoods, Eureka

There are several Earth Science courses taught at College of the Redwoods this coming Fall Semester. These are listed below. Please visit http://www.redwoods.edu/admissions/guide/ to register for any of these classes.

Environmental Science 15 Introduction to Energy 3 units An introductory study of humanity’s past and present use of available energy resources and an examination of potential future directions in energy use. Students will learn about the physical principles of energy resources and consider issues of environmental impact, economics, and sustainability.

Geology 1 Physical Geology 4 units An introductory study of physical geology including earth processes, materials, and changes in these materials through geologic time. Students will study minerals and rocks in the lab and the field, and will explore principles of mineral and rock formation, landform development, plate tectonics, volcanism, folding and faulting, and related topics.

Geology 15 Introduction to Earthquakes and Geologic Hazards 3 units An investigation of geologic and plate-tectonic processes and their relationships to faults, earthquake activity, mountain building, volcanism, landform development, and natural disasters. The course explores plate interactions and the connection to historic geologic disasters including earthquakes, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions. Students will learn about hazard prediction, preparedness, and societal responses to living within a dynamic geologic environment. Here is the website for this course.

Oceanography 10 Introduction to Oceanography 3 units An introduction to the Earth’s ocean including marine environments, geology, plate tectonics, fundamental chemical and physical properties of seawater, atmospheric-oceanic relationships, oceanic circulation, coastal environments and biological productivity. (linked to Oceanography 11)

Oceanography 11 Lab in Oceanography 1 units An exploration of the conceptual material presented in OCEAN-10. Students will acquire practical laboratory and field experience using oceanographic skills, tests, and procedures. Laboratory exercises focus on chart reading, measurements of seafloor movement, seawater chemistry, wave celerity, and microscopic analysis. Field experience includes examination of coastal geology, wave and beach processes, habitats and marine organisms. (linked to Oceanography 10)

Fall 2013 College of the Redwoods GEOL 15 – Introduction to Earthquakes and Geologic Hazards

Register NOW for this Mon-Wed (14:50-16:14) course at www.redwoods.edu.

An investigation of geologic and plate-tectonic processes and their relationships to faults, earthquake activity, mountain building, volcanism, landform development, and natural disasters. The course explores plate interactions and the connection to historic geologic disasters including earthquakes, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions. Students will learn about hazard prediction, preparedness, and societal responses to living within a dynamic geologic environment.

Geol 15 poster

Course Material and Educational Resources